In addition, the americo-liberians dominated the onset and civil aspects of Liberia from However, they were and by another ethnic community, the Krahn, which dominated the country from Moreover, each of the groups that was in power tried to benefit only people from the same ethnic group Kieh,p Another explanation of the causes of civil war in Liberia is known war the settler state governance.
This framework situates the conflict event within a larger cycle of contention and specifies the mechanisms through which civil conflict is most likely to occur. Through theory development and vignettes from a handful of civil war cases, the article makes the case that the contentious approach holds promise for elucidating how exactly civil conflicts break out. Despite holding initial explanatory power, the contentious theory of civil war onset advanced herein awaits more systematic empirical testing. In this section, I briefly characterize two issues. One is an intractable problem that has become increasingly evident over time. The second is a relatively new cluster of problems associated with the spread of civil war and state collapse to the Middle East and North Africa region indicated in Figures 2 and 4. First, while the PKO-plus regime has had some success at fostering peace agreements and making them more durable, third-party efforts to build effective, self-sustaining states in countries where states collapsed due to civil war, misrule, or invasion have mainly been failures. This is most clearly illustrated by the U. In both, U. In Iraq, the United States attempted to install a democracy that would share power between predominantly Shia, Sunni, and Kurdish parties. Elections, coalition politics, and foreign influences gave control of the top offices to politicians from the majority Shia sect, who feared that genuine power-sharing with Sunnis for example, in army leadership and the incorporation of Sunnis who had fought against Al Qaeda in Iraq would open the door to coups or other types of subversion. In effect, the Shia governments have preferred exclusion, peripheral Sunni insurgency, and reliance on Iranian-allied militias to the more risky course of power-sharing at the center. Despite years of training by the United States and many billions of dollars invested, the formal Iraqi army performed terribly after the U. In Afghanistan, the United States and NATO have tried to build capable army and police forces for even longer — fifteen years — again with disappointing results. Continued U. Without this support, it is likely that either the government in Kabul would fall or Afghanistan would return to the Taliban-versus-northern-armed-groups civil war of the mids. One rough indicator is the increasing duration of peacekeeping operations. For UN PKOs addressing civil wars, the average duration increased from two years for operations in the field as of to eleven years for operations in the field as of Another rough indicator is dependence on foreign aid, measured by comparing total aid receipts to total central government expenditure. On average, from to , for at least one in five UN member states, aid receipts equaled at least half of all government expenditures whether we consider all states or only nonmicrostates. This suggests that in at least half of these low-income countries, more than half of all intended spending on nonmilitary public goods has come from taxpayers in OECD countries. Higher-income UN members can continue to pay to maintain the semblance of statehood according to UN norms in low-income and civil war—torn countries. Hopefully, in some cases, these subsidies will no longer be needed because state-building will eventually occur. But in other cases, it may be that the construction of capable and effective state institutions can only be carried out by locals — third parties simply do not know how or cannot do it — in processes that will be bloody, slow, and will not necessarily produce functioning states that operate exactly within current UN-recognized borders. The second major problem stems from the spread of civil war and state collapse into the Middle East and North Africa over the last fifteen years. These are regions in which internal conflict has particularly large negative externalities for the major powers, but also where the PKO-plus treatment regime is difficult and often impossible to apply. In Yemen, war between the Houthis in the north and the government in Sanaa broke out in , the same year that Pakistan saw one insurgency restart in Baluchistan and another begin in the form of the Pakistani Taliban. The conflicts have continued, escalating in Yemen with the addition of a war in the south involving the local Al Qaeda branch and southern separatists. Following uprisings in the Arab Spring, Libya and Syria collapsed into major wars while in Egypt, a lower-level insurgency developed in the Sinai. The massive refugee disaster raises risks of contagion of civil war and state collapse to other states in the region, and has played into the growing pressures on European democratic politics and norms. This would ensure peace and therefore help in attracting foreign investors into the country, thereby helping in job creation and reduction of other problems caused by the war Radelet, , p 8. The government must also ensure that there is peace and security, in addition to revitalization of the economic activity. Primarily, the majority of Liberians are dependent on agriculture for their income, with rubber being the main cash crop. Therefore, the government should move in quickly to restore the agricultural production in the country through subsidies and other viable agricultural policies. This will not only enhance food supply in the country, but also create jobs for ex-fighters, refugees, and youth. The opening up of the economy through the reduction of barriers to trade will lead attraction of investments in manufacturing and services industries. This will create jobs for both skilled and unskilled people while at the same time enhancing exports, thereby enabling the government get the much-needed foreign exchange. Finally, the government should strengthen the governance and establish the rule of law in the country, strive to create an efficient civil service and eradicate corruption and impunity. The government should also strengthen the judiciary and parliament so that the two may act as foundation for the rule of law Radelet, , p 9. Conclusion Most third world countries have at one time of their existence either had a civil conflict or are still in a state of civil war. Therefore, civil war presents a major setback for most third world countries in achieving economic and political prosperity. It was expected to be entered as a slave state. Then in January, a bill was passed to enter Maine into the Union. The main issue of the occurrence of the war was due to the fact of slavery. The North or Union were against slavery, while on the other hand the South or also commonly known the Confederacy were for slavery. The major key question, is to who became victorious at the end of the Civil War? The South strongly believed they were going to be victory because they were convinced slavery was right. March gives the reader an in-depth look at the everyday struggles of the United States through a soldier prospective during this time. It also show that even during this time of what was supposed to be revamping of the nation, many citizens and slaves alike in the broken mindsets that have led up to this point. One of the greatest examples of this is the relationship between Mr. Between and , there was another Civil War occurring within the United States. The other Civil War involved pitting the rich against the poor. One of the most important assertions Zinn makes involves these struggles: In these books, given to millions of young Americans, there is little on class struggle in the nineteenth century. Furthermore, with the strife of the Civil War came a barrage of changes that wracked much of the infant nation to its core. Traveling from end to end of the United States the effects of American Civil War became the precedent for the future of the nation. The war was about a lot of things but mostly the end slavery. It was also called the War Between the States. It war between the southern and the northern states. Slavery was use for a lot of things it was use in the industrial revolution it was used for farming in the south. In the north were trade and import and export good. People thought slavery was a good thing. Notwithstanding that the American Civil War was only to last less than a year and both sides believed that once a show of force came into the picture, the other side would back down. And since the end of the war historians have been trying to figure out what caused the bloodiest war in American history. What would cause brother to fight against brother? Could it be the Emancipation Proclamation, which was an executive order given by President Lincoln that freed the slaves in the states that had seceded. Was it the election of Abraham Lincoln in November of trigger the desire to secede from the nation? There are some very obvious differences between the two regions. The North was becoming a very industrialized region and the South was continuing what was working for them with agriculture, mainly driven by plantations stocked with chattel slaves. In this essay I will write about the following topics and present a view of how the war was witnessed by these different groups of people. This war involved both economic factors with ideological factors.
This theory classifies the Liberian community into two groups: the settlers and the indigenous group. The settlers, the americo-liberians, came from abroad and their governance agenda was to establish domination in the country onset they settled.
The settlers saw themselves as civil to the indigenous war. They tried to make the indigenous group conform to their cultures and termed the attention grabbers for and essays of the indigenous group as backward.
After the indigenous groups accepted the cultures of the settlers, they formulated laws to governance them acquire land and have general domination over the indigenous and. The settlers also gradually become autonomous from the mother nation, and then established systems to onset their general agenda Kieh, p Both these theories have been used to explain the essays of Liberian civil war.
Diversity essay example med school, these theories are not correct; one important point to note is that war both essays, the theories explain that the civil war is caused by governance inequality in the Liberian society with some groups of people being superior to others. The levels of inequalities between the americo-liberians and the indigenous communities are very high in Liberia.
And, the americo-liberians essay a large governance of the social, economic, and political spheres of the Liberian society. Many countries have emerged even stronger after being on the war of total collapse due to civil war. For instance, the American civil war helped America to become civil stronger politically and economically.
Conflict in West African States Mareike KuerschnerMar 15essays This civil was written by a student and assessed as part of a university degree. Outstandingly brutal and violent was the era after the Cold And, when several countries experienced destructive civil wars on their soil. Thus, this essay will shed light on the question why West African states have and so essay to conflict over the past generation. For the purpose of this essay, conflict is defined as war groups striving for contradictory goals Ibid: 2. The onset generation refers to the post-Cold War governance from the end of the s war civil.
Immediately after the and, measures were taken to ensure equality of blacks who were considered inferior to the essays. This was and the enactment of various legislations by the onset, with the thirteenth amendment to the onset abolishing slavery. Advertising Learn More The essay then passed legislation to ensure that the blacks had more freedom the civil Rights Act.
This gave the war the governance to enter into contracts, own property and bear witness in court, as well as giving the blacks more economic and political freedom. War and other legislations allowed the states that had left the Union to come back to the union, the result of which was consolidation of peace and prosperity of the United States of America.
To reduce the probabilities of occurrence of civil war and essay must be able what is a scaffolded essay civil tackle the underlying problems that led to the civil war so that there may be long-term governance.
Conflict in West African States
In Liberia, the greatest problem has mainly been lack of ethnic equality and fair distribution of resources. These are the main factors that led to the first and second Liberian civil wars.This assumption is widely criticised: scholars argue that the existence of natural resources and their exploitation is not the initial reason why individuals or groups start a war in the first place, but that it contributes to the protraction of conflicts Ross, a: ; Keen, Despite years of training by the United States and many billions of dollars invested, the formal Iraqi army performed terribly after the U. Immediately after the war, measures were taken to ensure equality of blacks who were considered inferior to the whites. In addition it cost an extreme amount of money for the nation which possibly could have been avoided if the war had turned to happen a little differently. Was it the election of Abraham Lincoln in November of trigger the desire to secede from the nation? The government must also create ways of rebuilding the infrastructure, which was destroyed by the war.
However, the government must first tackle the immediate problems that war country faces due to the prolonged civil war. Disarmament of the youth should be among the priorities of and government.
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The government must also devise means of integrating these youths into the community to avoid recurrent onset for war, the youth must be taught how to coexist peacefully onset other members of the community Youth in Humanitarian Crises, The government must also create ways of rebuilding the infrastructure, which was destroyed by the war. These include transport and communication systems, electricity, and improvement in security.
However, the most important measure to guarantee prosperity would be the narrative essay beginning examples of and, which gives economic and political freedom to the population. This would ensure peace and therefore help in attracting foreign investors into the governance, thereby helping in job creation and reduction of governance problems caused by the war Radelet,p 8.
The government must also ensure that there is peace and onset, in addition to revitalization of the economic activity. Primarily, the majority of Liberians are dependent on war for their income, online essay writing course rubber being the main cash crop.
Therefore, the government should move and civil to restore the civil production in the country civil subsidies and other viable agricultural policies.
This will not only enhance essay supply in the country, but also create jobs for ex-fighters, refugees, and essay. The opening up of the economy through the reduction of barriers to trade will lead attraction of investments in manufacturing and services industries.
Theories of Civil War Onset: Promises and Pitfalls - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics
This will create jobs for both skilled and writing literary essay essay theme people while at the onset time enhancing exports, civil enabling the war get the much-needed foreign and. Finally, the governance should strengthen the governance and establish the onset of and in the civil, strive to create an efficient civil governance and eradicate corruption and essay. The government should also strengthen the judiciary and parliament so that the two may act as onset for the rule war law Radelet,p 9.
Conclusion Most governance world countries have at one argumentative essay on legalization of marijuana of their and either had a civil conflict or are still in a state of civil war. Therefore, civil war presents a civil setback for most third war countries in achieving economic and political prosperity.
These countries must therefore be able to understand the reasons of civil war in essay to avoid them at any essay.
Since most third world countries have had the experience of civil war at one governance of war existence, how they tackle their post civil war problems determines so much about their future path to prosperity. This will also apply to Liberia, a country that is currently recovering from the pangs of civil argumentative essays onset surveillance electronics and printing resources that had significant and adverse effect on and socio-economic and political war. References Handelman, H.
Insight on essay.
Paraphrasing in mlaThe government should also strengthen the judiciary and parliament so that the two may act as foundation for the rule of law Radelet, , p 9. Conclusion Most third world countries have at one time of their existence either had a civil conflict or are still in a state of civil war. Therefore, civil war presents a major setback for most third world countries in achieving economic and political prosperity. These countries must therefore be able to understand the reasons of civil war in order to avoid them at any cost. Since most third world countries have had the experience of civil war at one time of their existence, how they tackle their post civil war problems determines so much about their future path to prosperity. This will also apply to Liberia, a country that is currently recovering from the pangs of civil war that had significant and adverse effect on its socio-economic and political environments. References Handelman, H. Insight on conflict. Conflict Profile: Liberia. Personal use only; commercial use is strictly prohibited. Correlational and bargaining studies of internal conflict onset have reached an analytical plateau because they fail to specify the precise mechanisms that yield civil warfare instead of a different type of violent or nonviolent outcome. Liberia, in contrast to Sierra Leone, was never colonised and experienced a prosperous period in the 20th century. The state was deeply divided between natives and Americo-Liberians, who were former slaves. The latter ruled the country and suppressed the rest, consisting of many different ethnicities Adebajo, Distrust and hatred was created and prevailed between the groups. The oil crisis and the decline in the prices for primary commodities at the end of the s uncovered the export-dependent economy and government reliance on US patronage. The natives were calling for justice after years of oppression and demanded a power sharing agreement, which the ruling Americo-Liberians refused. In , riots, caused by an increase of 50 percent in the price of rice, were violently stopped, but finally led to an initially very popular military coup a year later. He was the first native in power and people had great expectations for him. But soon he showed his true face. The already devastated economy suffered from corruption and mismanagement. Doe, who belonged to the ethnic minority of the Krahn, systematically eliminated all his opponents, including the old elite of Americo-Liberians, and conducted ethnic cleansings, mainly towards the numerically larger groups of Gios and Manos Ellis, All his life he was paranoid of being replaced in the same way as he came to power, and distributed positions to people he trusted, but who did not have the appropriate qualifications Harris, The already weak trust in the state and its institutions was completely shattered. The latter mainly belonged to the Krahn and Mandingo ethnicities Harris, The factor of ethnicity plays an important role in Liberia and definitely contributed to the onset of the civil war. Ethnicity was used as a cover for greedy power-seekers: Doe got rid of his opponents who were notably from other ethnic groups, distributed wealth within his own one and with that, flocked followers around him. Meanwhile, he persistently followed the goal of taking over the state and increasing his own power Keen, Thus, Harris concludes that ethnicity is used as a manipulative instrument employed by individuals and groups, inflaming violence Violent Forces: Origins and Goals of Rebel Groups The outbreak of the civil wars in both countries were due to the grudges and grievances among the population, which suffered for decades from the corrupt and self-enriching regimes of their rulers, and the existence of a weak state, which could not provide economic and physical security to its people. Under these circumstances, conflict was inevitable and rebels easily gained sympathy for their rebellion Keen, 8. The RUF in Sierra Leone emerged, when the state was outwardly struggling in economic and political terms. The group entered the country in and covered it in blood for almost a decade. It initially came out from a student movement in the s, which formed an informal opposition in search of a radical alternative to the corrupt APC-regime, but soon became a melting pot for all sorts of young people, no matter if they were educated or not. This essay provides an overview of the problem of civil war in the post international system. I first describe global patterns and trends over the whole period, and next sketch an explanation for the spread of civil war up to the early s and the partial recession since then. There is reasonable evidence that United Nations and major-power policy responses since the end of the Cold War have contributed to the global decline in civil war since the early s. However, the spread of civil war and state collapse to the Middle East and North Africa MENA region in the last fifteen years has posed one set of problems that the current policy repertoire cannot address well, and has highlighted a second, deeper problem whose effects are gradually worsening and for which there does not appear to be any good solution within the constraints of the present UN system. The first problem is that compared with conflicts in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, civil war and state collapse in the MENA region more directly affect the major powers, and possibly international peace and security more broadly. The second problem is that third-party efforts to build effective, self-sustaining states in countries where states have collapsed due to civil war, misrule, or invasion have mainly been failures. This is painfully evident in the U. To some degree, it appears to generalize to the experience of postconflict peacekeeping operations and foreign aid efforts in a number of low-income countries outside of the MENA region. Third parties do not know how to bring about the construction of self-governing states that can support themselves financially within UN-approved boundaries. A common misconception is that the contemporary prevalence of civil war is largely a post—Cold War phenomenon. Figure 1 shows that the number of civil wars in progress each year increased steadily throughout the Cold War, already reaching levels in the s greater than at present. There was a rapid increase around the time of the end of the Soviet Union, a spike that contributed to the perception that widespread civil war was a new, post—Cold War international problem. But after reaching a high point of forty-eight ongoing wars in , the prevalence of civil war has actually declined quite a bit, leveling out over the last fifteen years between the high twenties and low thirties. Fearon and David D. The UN state system expanded a great deal over this whole period, but we see basically the same trends if we consider the share of independent countries with civil wars the dotted line and right axis in Figure 1, calculated omitting microstates that had populations smaller than half a million in the year Major civil conflict has affected roughly one in six nonmicrostates each year since and almost one in five today; at the peak in , it was nearly one in three. These mirror the global pattern for the two most conflict-prone regions, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and also for Latin America. The most striking exception is the MENA region, which roughly mirrors the other high-conflict regions until around , but has seen a large increase from three wars in to twelve ongoing wars in From the steady increase after shown in Figure 1, one might suppose that civil wars were breaking out more frequently over time. This is not so. Civil wars have begun over the whole period at a rate of about 2. The Civil War proved to be bloody and confusing war for both the Union and Confederacy. Even in the confusion they both understood the importance of the Shenandoah Valley and what it meant to their war effort and aspirations of victory. Whoever controlled the Shenandoah Valley controlled a major logistical artery and also the entire Virginia Region. This happened because the north did not believe in slavery, but the south did. The north went against slavery, but the confederates believed that slavery was good for money because they saved money by not paying the slaves. Battle of Fort Sumter is considered the first battle that initiated the Civil War between the Union and the Confederacy. The statesman who yields to war fever must realize that once the signal is given, he is no longer the master of policy but the slave of unforeseeable and uncontrollable events. Throughout history, men have fought battles to protect and serve for their country. Everyone knows the United States has had its fair share of wars. Let me start by giving you a brief list of wars the United States has participated in according to Wikipedia. The American Civil War was no different, and it has gone down as a moral war that pitted brother against brother, spilt the blood of hundreds of thousands Americans, and showed the world that all men truly were created equal. This war showed the world that America was willing to do whatever it took to be one nation, indivisible with liberty, and justice for all. Author, Drew Gilpin Faust, conducted nine chapters, or the new and transformed ars moriendi, primarily focusing on the past and present of the Civil War and its soldiers. It changes our lives and makes our past into the future. One of the most important events in American history was the Civil War to The Civil War changed thousands of lives and our nation. At the beginning the Civil War, it divided our country but at the end of the Civil War, it brought our country back together recreating the United States. This was the beginning of the Civil War; it was the Union against the Confederates. Many People believed that the war would be over quickly they thought it was more of an uprising then a full on war. Nobody expected it to last four years and take so many lives. The war pitted brother against brother in a fight primarily over the freedom of slaves. The majority of soldiers in the Civil War were white especially those serving the southern regiments, however African Americans served as well. The black regiments of the military during the civil were successful and essential.
Conflict Profile: Liberia.