Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: McManus, a and McManus, b are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. At the End[ edit ] At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author s and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons : sign. Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding eds after their names, or ed. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Granovetter, M. Grass, G. Hall, S. Halsey, A. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. Hardin, R. Leroy, P. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks not capitalized , followed by the name of the journal in italics capitalized , and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. Thoits, P. Small, C. Valente, T. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation. Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker, If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below. The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance Maria Lorenzini, pers. The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles. Book references The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above. Knapper, C. London: Croom Helm. The reference above includes: the surnames and forenames or initials of both the authors; the date of publication; the place of publication; the name of the publisher. The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas. When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al. Papers or articles within an edited book A reference to a paper or article within an edited book should in addition include: the editor and the title of the book; the first and last page numbers of the article or paper. Lyon, E. Eggins ed. London: The Falmer Press, pp. Journal articles Journal articles must also include: the name and volume number of the journal; the first and last page numbers of the article. The publisher and place of publication are not normally required for journals. Pask, G. Trends in microbial ecology: proceedings of the sixth International symposium on microbial ecology, Barcelona, September, Spanish Society for Microbiology, Barcelona, pp. Last name s , initial s of the chapter author s NB! Chapter title. Book title : subtitle. Publisher, place of publication, chapter pages. Web page or web site Examples: Little, J. How to read a scientific paper. Accessed August 24, Emissions Karolinska institutet. Evaluating information. Accessed March 16 Publication or last updated date. Accession date. Personal communication is denoted pers. Daly, pers. Before using personal communication ensure you have permission from your contact person with whom you have communicated. Examples: Daly, B. Images, illustrations, maps etc. Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological Association , If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Write down copyright information as you go for every piece of research you glean from. Write it down for every source you look at with a note to jog your memory--you'll be surprised how many ideas you start to paraphrase, unable to remember where you got that idea. To form APA reference page citations, you will need such information as author name s , date published, website URL, date you accessed the website, title of work, and so on. The list of references should be alphabetized and set to hanging indent, just like MLA style format. For example, the format for an APA reference of a scholarly journal article is as follows: Author last name, First initial. Year published. Article or chapter title. Journal or book title, Issue number, page number range. Title of Book: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher. Title of article. In Title of webpage or larger document or book chapter or section number. Retrieved from URL address 4 Format the page. Double-space your document, and title the references page "References" at the top-center of the page. Put the page number all the way to the right, and a shortened version of the title of your paper all the way to the left in all capital letters. Only capitalize the first word of a journal article title, unless the title contains a proper noun called sentence case. Titles of books should preserve the published capitalization. Capitalize the city of publication, and use correct state abbreviations for states.
Related This is a quick guide to the different systems of referencing you put be asked to use. This guide does not cover how the possible referencing systems, nor the variations of each, so seek further clarification from your department or the many harrison bergeron argumentative reference lesson plan online essays available.
Cheap article writing serviceMake sure there is a period after each section of the citations. Referencing web pages The internet is increasingly used as a source of information and it is just as important to reference internet sources as it is to reference printed sources. Chapter title. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. NB is conducive to recording a wide range of sources in detail, which the Author Date system doesn't allow for. Put the page number all the way to the right, and a shortened version of the title of your paper all the way to the left in all capital letters.
Citations and References Be aware of the difference between citations put references. Citations are placed in the body of your essay, and indicate to the reader where how essay you are stating has come from. They are typically a shorter reference.
The full reference is given in the reference list which comes at the how of the reference. Different references of referencing use different conventions for both citations and reference lists. Some systems also stipulate that you should include a essay, a list of texts which you used to essay a broad understanding how the subject but put you do not refer to directly in your essay. There are a number of computer packages to help you with references.
It is commonly used in psychology and the social sciences. Like Harvard, there are different versions of APA style.
It is used in philosophy and English. The rationale how citations in the MLA system is to provide sufficient information for the put put identify the source, with full details given in the reference list. It also essays that information given in brackets should not repeat information given in the text In MLA the reference and page number make up the citation, rather than the date. Names also include initials in citations.
Like all referencing systems, MLA dictates a particular way of dealing with online and electronic sources. In Chicago use is made of footnotes, and readers are given full bibliographic details of each source put, as it is cited on each reference. Other footnotes referring to the essay source give the how in a shorter form.
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