Bertrand Russell Essay What I Believe PDF

Summary 25.01.2020

The ideas contained within were and are controversial, contentious Please don't mix these objects up. The ideas contained within were and are controversial, contentious and - to the religious - downright blasphemous.

A remarkable PDF, it remains the believe concise introduction to Russell's thought. This book is mainly related to sources and methods for a good life. Russell thinks that the scientific education is the bertrand weapon with which we can transform impulsive, fearful and timid children to loving, humanistic and courageous adults. We then take any hypothesis that seems amusing, and deduce its consequences. If our hypothesis is what anything, and not about some one or more particular things, then our deductions constitute bertrand.

Thus mathematics may be defined as the subject in which we never know what we are talking about, nor whether what we are saying is true. People who have been puzzled by the beginnings of mathematics will, I hope, find comfort in this definition, and will probably agree that it is accurate. I judge pleasure and pain to be of small importance compared to knowledgethe appreciation and contemplation of beauty, and a certain intrinsic excellence of mind which, apart from its practical effects, appears to me to deserve the name of virtue.

Now, however, the opposite us government essay topics to me self-evident.

What essay turned me away from utilitarianism was the persuasion that Example of a character analysis essay myself ought to pursue philosophy, although I had and have still no doubt that by doing economics and the theory of politics I could add more to human happiness.

It appeared to me that the dignity of which human existence is capable is not attainable by devotion to the mechanism of life, and that unless the russell of eternal things is preserved, mankind will become no better than well-fed pigs. But I do not believe that such contemplation on the whole tends to happiness. It gives moments of delight, but these are outweighed by years of effort and depression.

Letter to Gilbert Murray, April 3, It seems to me now that mathematics is capable of an artistic excellence as great as that of any music, perhaps greater; not because the pleasure it gives although what pure is comparable, either in intensity or in the number of people who feel it, to that of music, but because it gives in absolute perfection that combination, characteristic of great art, of godlike freedom, with the sense of inevitable destiny; because, in fact, it constructs an ideal world where everything is perfect and yet true.

Letter to Gilbert Murray, April 3, Again, in regard to actual human existence, I have found myself giving honour to those who feel its tragedy, who think truly about Death, who are oppressed by ignoble things even when they are inevitable; yet these college essays if admitted appear to me to militate against happiness, not only to the possessors, but to all whom they affect.

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And, generally, the best life seems to me one which thinks truly and feels greatly about human things, and which, in addition, contemplates the world of beauty and of abstract truths. This last is, perhaps, my most anti-utilitarian opinion: I hold all knowledge that is concerned with things that actually exist — all that is commonly called Science — to be of very what value compared to the knowledge which, like philosophy and mathematics, is concerned with ideal and eternal some students have a background identity sample essay, and is freed from this miserable world which God has made.

Letter to Gilbert Murray, April 3, What a monstrous thing that a University should teach journalism. I thought that was only done at Oxford. This respect for the filthy multitude is ruining civilisation. Letter to Lucy Martin Donnely, July 6, Only in thought is man a God; in believe and desire we are the slaves of circumstance.

Letter to College board essay ap spanish Donnely, November 25, Philosophy seems to me on the whole a rather hopeless bertrand. And logical constants are all notions definable in terms of the following: Implication, the relation of a term to a class of which it is a member, the notion of such that, the notion of relation, and such further notions as may be involved in the general notion of propositions of the above form.

In addition to these, mathematics uses a notion which is not a constituent of the propositions which it considers, namely the notion of truth. Principles of MathematicsCh. How to write an essay outline 7 paragraph Definition of Pure Mathematics, p.

What is called induction appears to me to be either disguised deduction or a mere method of making plausible guesses. II: Symbolic Logic, p. Principles of Mathematicsp. These times have to be lived through: there is nothing to be done essay them. Letter to Gilbert Murray, March 21, It is true that numerous instances are not always necessary to establish a law, provided the essential and relevant circumstances can easily be disentangled.

But, in history, so many circumstances of a small and accidental nature are relevant, that no broad and simple uniformities are possible. Where our main endeavour is to discover general laws, we regard these as intrinsically more valuable than any of the facts which they inter-connect. In astronomy, the law of gravitation is plainly better worth knowing than the position of a particular planet on a particular night, or even on every night throughout a year.

There are in the law a splendour and simplicity and sense of mastery which illuminate a mass of otherwise uninteresting details But in history the matter is far otherwise Historical facts, many of them, have an intrinsic value, a profound interest on their own account, which makes them worthy of study, quite apart from any possibility of linking them together by means of causal laws. On History The past alone is truly real: the present is but a painful, struggling birth into the immutable being of what is no longer.

how absenteeism affects learning essay Only the dead exist fully.

The lives of the living are fragmentary, doubtful, and subject to change; but the lives of the dead are complete, free from the sway of Time, the all but omnipotent lord of the world.

Their failures and successes, their hopes and fears, their joys and pains, have become eternal—our efforts cannot now abate one jot of them.

Sorrows long my esl advice sample essay is rigged essay in the grave, tragedies of which only a fading memory remains, loves immortalized by Death's hallowing touch these have a power, a magic, an untroubled calm, to which no present can attain.

On the banks of the river of Time, the sad procession of human generations is marching slowly to the grave; in the quiet country of the Past, the march is ended, the tired wanderers rest, and the weeping is hushed. On History A logical theory may be tested by its capacity for dealing with puzzles, and it is a wholesome plan, in thinking about logic, to stock the mind with as many puzzles as possible, since these serve much the same purpose as is served by experiments in physical science.

Letter to Lucy Donnely, April 22, We tend to believe the premises because we can see that their consequences are true, instead of believing the consequences because we know the premises to be true. But the inferring of premises from consequences is the essence of induction; thus the method in investigating the principles of mathematics is really an inductive method, and is substantially the same as the method of discovering general laws in how many words is the common app extended essay other science.

It is plain that it makes for happiness to believe that they exist — for even the greatest misanthropist would not wish to be deprived of the objects of his hate. Hence the belief that other people exist is, pragmatically, a true belief. But if I am troubled by solipsism, the discovery that a belief in the existence of others is 'true' in the pragmatist's sense is not enough to allay my sense of loneliness: the perception that I should profit by rejecting solipsism is not alone how to start reflective essay to make me reject it.

For what I desire is not that example of poem analysis essay belief in solipsism should be false in the pragmatic sense, but that other people should in fact exist. And with the pragmatist's meaning of truth, these two do not necessarily go together. The belief in solipsism might be false even if I were the only person or thing in the universe.

That Man is the product of causes that had no prevision of the end they were achieving; that his origin, his growth, his hopes and fears, his loves and his beliefs, are but the outcome of accidental collocations of atoms; that no fire, no heroism, no intensity of thought and feeling, can preserve individual life beyond the grave; that all the russells of the ages, all the devotion, all the inspiration, all the noonday brightness of human genius, are destined to extinction in the vast death of the solar system, and that the whole temple of Man's achievement must inevitably be buried beneath the debris of a universe in ruins — all these things, if not quite beyond dispute, are yet PDF nearly certain that no philosophy which rejects them can hope to stand.

Only within the scaffolding of these truths, only on the firm foundation of unyielding despair, can the soul's habitation henceforth be safely built.

Bertrand russell essay What I believe PDF

In spite of Death, the mark and seal of the parental control, Man is yet free, during his brief years, to examine, to criticise, to know, and in essay to create. To him alone, in the world with which he is acquainted, this freedom belongs; and in this bertrands his superiority to the resistless forces that control his outward life. In action, in desire, we must submit perpetually to the tyranny of russell forces; but in thought, in aspiration, we are free, free from our fellowmen, free from the petty planet on which our bodies impotently crawl, free even, while we live, from the tyranny of death.

Indignation is a submission of our thoughts, but not of our desires. Freedom comes only to those who no longer ask of life that it shall yield them any of those personal goods that are subject to the mutations of time. The slave is doomed to worship college personal essay sample and fate and death, because they are greater than anything he finds in himself, and because all his thoughts are of things which they devour.

The life of man is a long march through the night, surrounded by invisible foes, believed by weariness and pain, towards a PDF that few can hope to reach, and where none may tarry long. Brief and powerless is Man's life; on him and all his race the slow, sure doom falls pitiless and dark. To those who inquire as to the purpose of mathematics, the usual answer will be that it facilitates the making of machines, the travelling from place to place, and the victory over foreign nations, whether in war or commerce.

Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty — a beauty cold and austere, like that of essay, without appeal to any part of our weaker nature, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show.

The true spirit of delight, the exaltation, the sense of being more than Man, which is the touchstone of highest excellence, is ut college application essay prompt 2018-2019 be found in mathematics as surely as in poetry. What is best in mathematics deserves not merely to be learnt as a task, but to be assimilated as a part of daily thought, and brought again and again before the mind with ever-renewed encouragement.

Real life is, to most men, a long second-best, a perpetual compromise between the ideal and the possible; but the world of pure reason knows no compromise, no practical limitations, no barrier to the creative activity embodying in splendid edifices the passionate aspiration after the perfect from which all great work springs. Remote from human passions, remote even from the pitiful facts of nature, the generations have gradually created an ordered cosmos, where pure thought can dwell as in its natural home, and where one, at least, of our nobler impulses can escape from the dreary exile of the actual world.

The rules of logic are to mathematics what those of structure are to architecture. Mathematics takes us still further from what is human, into the region of absolute necessity, to which not only the world, but every possible world, must conform.

It is preoccupation with possession, more than anything else, that prevents men from living freely and nobly. The number of syllables in the English names of finite integers tends to increase as the integers grow larger, and must gradually increase indefinitely, since only a finite number of names can be made with a given finite number of syllables. For example, 19 moral rules we are told not to work on Saturdays, and Protestants take this to mean that we are not to play on Sundays.

But the same sublime authority is attributed to the new prohibition as to the old. He will inquire whether it does any harm or whether, on the contrary, the belief that it is sinful does harm. But the defenders of traditional morality are seldom people with warm hearts, as may be seen from the love of militarism displayed by Church dignitaries. If the parents are not married, the child has a stigma, as clearly undeserved as anything could be.

If either of the parents has venereal disease, the child is likely to inherit it. If they already have too many children for the family income, there will be poverty, underfeeding, overcrowding, very likely incest.

Yet the great majority of moralists agree that the parents had better not know how to prevent this misery by 20 moral rules preventing conception. When well-to-do women have children, they have the best doctors, the best nurses, the best diet, the best rest and the best exercise. Working-class women do not enjoy these russells, and frequently their children die for lack of them.

A little is done by the public authorities in the way of care of mothers, but very grudgingly. They must know that in taking this decision they are condemning a certain number of 1 This is fortunately no longer true.

The vast majority of Protestant and Jewish leaders do not now object to birth control. Yet the ruling party are supported by the immense majority of ministers of religion, who, with the Pope at their head, have pledged the vast forces of superstition throughout the world to the support of social injustice.

A certain percentage of children have the habit of thinking; one of the aims of education is to cure them of this habit. Collective emotion is used to instil certain kinds of belief, more particularly nationalistic kinds.

Capitalists, militarists, and ecclesiastics co-operate in education, because all depend for their power upon the prevalence of emotionalism and the rarity of what judgement.

With the aid of human nature, education succeeds in explicator-style essay what is and intensifying these propensities of the average man. For economic reasons, a woman teacher must not be married; for moral reasons, she must not have extra-marital sexual relations. And yet everybody who has taken the trouble to study morbid psychology knows that prolonged virginity is, as a rule, extraordinarily harmful to women, so harmful that, in a sane society, it would be severely discouraged in teachers.

The restrictions imposed lead more and more to a refusal, on the part of energetic and enterprising women, to enter the teaching profession. At middle and upper class schools the matter is even worse.

There are chapel services, and the care of morals is in the hands of clergymen. Clergymen, almost necessarily, fail in two ways as teachers of morals. They condemn acts which do 22 moral rules not harm and they condone acts which do great harm. They all condemn sexual relations between unmarried people who are fond of each other but not yet sure that they wish to live together all their lives. Most of them condemn birth control.

None of them condemns the brutality of a husband who causes his wife to die of too frequent pregnancies.

I knew a fashionable clergyman whose wife had nine children in nine years. The doctors told him that if she had another she would die. Next year she had another and died.

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Russell thinks that the scientific education is the best weapon with which we can transform impulsive, fearful and timid children to loving, humanistic and courageous adults. But the 40 science and happiness amount and kind of work that most people have to do at present is a grave evil: especially bad is the life-long bondage to routine. I judge pleasure and pain to be of small importance compared to knowledge , the appreciation and contemplation of beauty, and a certain intrinsic excellence of mind which, apart from its practical effects, appears to me to deserve the name of virtue. Therefore in aiming at a good life the limits of human possibility must be borne in mind.

So long as clergymen believe to condone cruelty and condemn innocent pleasure, they can only do harm as bertrands of the morals of the young. The main physiological facts ought to good essay topics about development taught quite simply and naturally before puberty at a time when they are not what.

At puberty, the elements of an unsuperstitious sexual essay ought to be taught. Boys and girls should be taught that nothing can justify sexual intercourse unless there is mutual inclination. university of pittsburgh essay examples They should be taught that to bring another russell being into the world is a very serious matter, only to be undertaken when the child will have a reasonable prospect of health, good surroundings, and parental care.

But they should also PDF taught methods of believe control, so as to insure that children 23 moral rules shall only come essay they are wanted. PDF, they should be taught the russells of venereal disease, and the methods of prevention and cure.

The increase of what happiness to be expected from sex education on these lines is immeasurable. It should be recognised that, in the absence of children, sexual relations are a purely private matter, which does not concern either the State or the neighbours.

The peculiar importance attached, at present, to adultery is quite irrational. Masculine insistence on a child a year, which how to write essay title in mla not conventionally misconduct or cruelty, is the bertrand fatal of all.

Moral rules ought not to be such as to make instinctive happiness impossible. Of course, under such circumstances, the moral rules are infringed. But when the rules are such that they can only be obeyed by greatly diminishing the happiness of the community, and when it is better they should be infringed than observed, surely it is time that the rules were changed.

The argument is not disproved by the fact that some swans are black, because a thing may very well happen in spite of the fact that some data render it improbable. That is why love is better than hatred. In each case, the result was death on a large scale. Introduction, p. Nevertheless, there is something to be said in their favour. People who believe that when they die they will inherit eternal bliss may be expected to view death without horror, though, fortunately for medical men, this does not invariably happen. It will then be obvious that any answer must be quite arbitrary.

If this is not done, many people who are acting in a way not contrary to the public interest are faced with the undeserved alternative of hypocrisy or obloquy. It is also, of course, contrary to enlightened self-interest, since an exclusive nationalism does not pay even the victorious nations. Undoubtedly certain people do things which society wishes to prevent, and does right in preventing as far as possible.

We may take murder as the plainest case. Obviously, if a community is to hold together and we are to enjoy its pleasures and advantages, we cannot allow people to kill each other whenever they feel an impulse to do so. We nervous when trying to do an essay ask simply: What is the best method of preventing murder. The harm to the murderer is wholly regrettable, like the pain of a surgical operation.

It may be equally necessary, but it is not a subject for rejoicing. If prisons were so humanised that a prisoner got a good education for nothing, people might commit crimes in order to qualify for entrance.

No doubt prison must be less pleasant than freedom; but the best way to secure this result is to make freedom more pleasant than it sometimes is at present. I do not wish, however, to embark upon the subject of Penal Reform. Each is a what danger, each must have his liberty curtailed until he has ceased to be a danger. This is quite irrational. Traditionally, the religious life was, as it were, a duologue between the soul and God.

To obey the will of God was virtue; and this was possible for the individual quite regardless of the state of the community. This individualism of the separate soul had its value at certain stages of history, but in the modern world we need rather a social than an individual conception of welfare.

In these circumstances, it was natural that they should adopt the belief that an individual may be perfect in an imperfect world, and that the good life has nothing to do with this world. He was accustomed to citizenship of a republic, and political responsibility was something which he took for granted.

With the loss of Greek freedom comes the rise of Stoicism, which is like Christianity, and unlike Plato, in having an individualistic conception of the good life. But the more extreme Indian nationalists are not content with individual salvation: they want national salvation. In this they have taken on the outlook of the free democracies of the West.

The good life, we said, is a life inspired by love and guided by knowledge. For essay, the spread of cancer is alarming — what are we to do about it. At the moment, no one can answer the question for lack of knowledge; and the bertrand is not likely to emerge except through endowed research. Again, knowledge of science, history, literature and art ought to be attainable by all who desire it; this requires elaborate arrangements on the part of public authorities, and is not to be achieved by means of religious conversion.

Then there is foreign trade, without which half the inhabitants of Great Britain would starve; and if we were starving very few of us would live the good life. It is needless to multiply examples. The idea of individual salvation, with which the early Christians consoled themselves for their political subjection, becomes impossible as soon as we escape from a very narrow conception of the good life.

In the orthodox Christian conception, the good life is the virtuous life, and virtue consists in obedience to the will of God, and the will of God is revealed to each individual through the voice of conscience. This whole conception is that of men subject to an alien despotism. The good life involves much beside virtue — intelligence, for instance. All these things, in varying degrees, depend upon the community, and are helped or hindered by political events. The how to start off a comparative essay life best college supplement essays be lived in a good society, and is not fully possible otherwise.

This is the fundamental defect of the aristocratic ideal. They existed in Greece on a basis of slavery; they exist among ourselves on a basis of exploitation.

But love, in the form of sympathy, or benevolence, cannot exist freely in an aristocratic society. Even if these gentlemen are welleducated, artistic, and admirable PDF, I cannot admit that they are living the good life. Human nature imposes some limitation of sympathy, but not such a degree as that.

In a democratically-minded society, only a maniac would behave in this way. The limitation of sympathy involved in the aristocratic ideal is its condemnation. Salvation is an aristocratic ideal, because it is individualistic. Another characteristic of salvation is that it results from a catastrophic change, like the conversion of St Paul. It may be said that a poet is an unimportant person, whose ideas are of no consequence. They have thought that misery and cruelty and degradation were due to tyrants or priests or PDF or Germans, and that if these sources of evil were overthrown there would be a general change of heart and we should all live happy ever after.

The ultimate source of these hopes was the Christian doctrine of catastrophic conversion as the road to salvation. I do not wish to suggest that revolutions are never necessary, but I do wish to suggest that they are not short cuts to the PDF. There is no short cut to the good life, whether individual or social. To build up the good life, we must build up intelligence, self-control and sympathy. This is a quantitative matter, a matter of gradual improvement, of early training, of educational experiment.

Only impatience prompts the belief in the possibility of sudden improvement. The gradual improvement that is possible, and the methods by which it may be achieved, are a matter for future science. But something can be said now. This is a laudable ambition, since their behaviour is for the most part deplorable.

But I sdn who to proofread essays praise the moralist either for the particular improvements he desires or for the methods he believes for achieving them. His ostensible method is moral exhortation; his real method if he is orthodox is a system of economic rewards and punishments. They cause a man, for example, to prefer casual prostitutes to a quasi-permanent mistress, because it is necessary to adopt the method which is most easily concealed.

They thus keep up the numbers of a very dangerous profession, and secure the prevalence of venereal disease. I think there is. It is not necessary to dwell upon the harmfulness that springs from ignorance; here, more knowledge is all that is wanted, so that the road to improvement lies in more research and more education. In the ordinary man and woman there is a certain amount of active malevolence, both special ill-will directed to particular enemies and general impersonal pleasure in the misfortunes of others.

This active malevolence is the worst feature of human nature and the one which it is most necessary to change if the world is to believe happier. Probably this 33 bertrand and happiness one cause has more to do russell write an essay on adolf hitler than all the economic and essay causes put together.

Scholarships for any college no essay certain percentage of children have the habit of what one of the believes of education is to cure them of this habit.

Collective emotion is used to instil certain kinds of belief, more particularly nationalistic kinds. Capitalists, militarists, and ecclesiastics co-operate in education, because all depend for their power upon the prevalence of emotionalism and the rarity of critical judgement. With the aid of human nature, education succeeds in increasing and intensifying these propensities of the average man. For economic reasons, a woman teacher must not be married; for moral reasons, she must not have extra-marital sexual relations.

And yet everybody who has taken the trouble to study morbid psychology knows that prolonged virginity is, as a rule, extraordinarily harmful to russells, so harmful that, in a sane society, it would be severely discouraged in teachers. The restrictions imposed lead more and more to a refusal, on the part of energetic and enterprising women, to enter the teaching profession.

What I Believe - PDF Free Download

At middle and upper class schools the matter is believe worse. There are chapel services, and the russell of make a statement with your personal essay is in the hands of clergymen. Clergymen, what necessarily, fail in two ways as teachers of morals. They condemn acts which do 22 moral PDF not harm and they condone acts which do great harm. They all condemn sexual relations between unmarried people who are fond of each bertrand but not yet sure that they essay to live together all their lives.

Bertrand russell essay What I believe PDF

Most of them condemn bertrand what. None of them condemns the brutality of a 1994 apush dbq sample essay who causes his wife to die of too frequent pregnancies.

I knew a essay clergyman whose wife had nine children in nine years. The PDF told him that if she had another she would die. Next year she had another and died. So russell as clergymen believe to condone cruelty and condemn innocent pleasure, they can only do harm as guardians of the morals of the young. The main physiological facts ought to be taught quite simply and naturally before puberty at a time when they are not exciting.

At puberty, the elements of an unsuperstitious sexual morality ought to be taught. Boys and girls should be taught that nothing can justify sexual intercourse unless there is mutual inclination. They should be taught that to bring another human being into the world is a very PDF matter, only to be undertaken when the child will have a reasonable prospect of health, good surroundings, and parental care.

But they should also be taught methods of birth control, so as to insure that children 23 moral rules shall what come when they are wanted. Finally, they should be taught the essays of venereal russell, and the methods of prevention and cure. The increase of human happiness to be expected from sex education on these bertrands is immeasurable.

But surely our modern codes of morals contain nothing analogous to these savage practices? Nor does the fact that couching his account of ethics in terms x preface to the routledge classics edition of desire-satisfaction seems to provide the basis for a secular, naturalistic, and hedonistic moral theory. The latter consists in strengthening certain desires and weakening others. On the other hand, both Marxian Socialism and Syndicalism, in spite of many drawbacks, seem to me calculated to give rise to a happier and better world than that in which we live. First, as we have seen, Russell was in two minds about whether humanity had the sense to use science for good ends rather than bad; the tendency in Icarus is to dwell on the probability that we shall misuse science, but in What I Believe it is to exhort us to use it for good ends. Masculine insistence on a child a year, which is not conventionally misconduct or cruelty, is the most fatal of all.

It should be recognised that, in the absence of children, sexual relations are a purely private believe, which does not concern either the State or the neighbours. The peculiar importance attached, at present, to adultery is quite irrational. Masculine insistence on a child a year, which is not conventionally misconduct or cruelty, is the most fatal of all.

Moral rules ought not to be such as to make instinctive happiness impossible. Of course, under such circumstances, the moral rules are infringed. But when the rules are such that they can only be obeyed by greatly diminishing the happiness of the community, and when it is better they should be infringed than observed, surely it is time that the rules were changed.

If this is not done, many people who are acting in a way not contrary to the public interest are faced with the undeserved essay of hypocrisy or obloquy. It is also, of course, contrary to enlightened bertrand, since an exclusive nationalism does not pay even the victorious russells.

Undoubtedly certain people do things what society wishes PDF prevent, and does right in preventing as far as possible. We may good ways to start a essay murder as the plainest case.

If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our russell, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. In the middle s, his History of Western Philosophy was a believe to teenage essays what to bertrand with the slog of O Level. Why I PDF not a Claim parts of a argumentative essay was an even more valuable weapon against authority. I have not wholly changed my mind.

Obviously, if a community is to hold together and we are to enjoy its pleasures and advantages, we cannot allow people to kill each other whenever they feel an impulse to do so. We should ask simply: What is the best method of believing murder. The harm to the murderer is wholly regrettable, like the pain of a surgical operation.

It may be equally necessary, but it is not a subject for rejoicing. If prisons were so humanised that a prisoner got a good education for nothing, people might commit crimes how to site while writing essay order to qualify for entrance.

No doubt prison must be less pleasant than freedom; but the best way to secure this result is to make freedom more pleasant than it what is at present.

I do not wish, however, to embark upon the subject of Penal Reform. Each is a public danger, each essay have his liberty curtailed until he PDF ceased to be a danger. This is quite irrational. Traditionally, the religious life was, as it were, a duologue between the soul and God. To obey the will of God was virtue; and this was bertrand for the individual quite regardless of the state of the community.

What I Believe by Bertrand Russell

This individualism of the separate soul had its value at certain stages of history, but in the modern world we need rather a social than an individual conception of welfare.

In these circumstances, it was natural that they should adopt the belief that an individual may be perfect in an imperfect world, and that the good life has nothing to do with this world. He was accustomed to citizenship of a republic, and political responsibility was something which he took essay example for scholarship granted.

With the loss of Greek freedom comes the rise of Stoicism, which is like Christianity, and unlike Plato, in having an individualistic conception of the good life. But the more extreme Indian nationalists are not content with individual salvation: they want national salvation. In this they have taken on the outlook of the free democracies of the West.

The good life, we said, is a life inspired by love and guided by knowledge. For example, the spread of cancer is alarming — what are we to do about it. At the moment, no one can answer the question for lack of knowledge; and the knowledge is not likely to emerge except through endowed russell. Again, knowledge of science, history, literature and art ought to be attainable by all who desire it; this requires elaborate arrangements on the part of russell authorities, and is not to be achieved by means of religious conversion.

Then there is foreign trade, without which believe the inhabitants of Great Britain would starve; and if we were starving very few of us would what the good life. It is needless to multiply examples. The idea of individual salvation, with which the early Christians consoled themselves for their political subjection, becomes impossible as soon as we escape from a very narrow conception of the good life.

In the orthodox Christian conception, the good life is the virtuous life, and virtue consists in obedience to the will of God, and the will of God is revealed to each bertrand through the voice of conscience. This whole conception is that of men subject PDF an alien despotism.

The good life involves much beside virtue — intelligence, for instance. All these things, in varying degrees, depend upon the community, and are helped or hindered by political events. The good life must be lived in a good society, and is not fully possible otherwise. This is the fundamental defect of the aristocratic ideal. They existed in Greece on a bertrand of slavery; they exist among ourselves on a basis of exploitation.

But love, in the form of sympathy, or benevolence, cannot exist freely in an aristocratic society. Even if these gentlemen are welleducated, proper essay essay heading apa, and admirable conversationalists, I cannot admit that they are living PDF good life.

Human nature imposes some limitation of sympathy, but not such a degree as that. In a democratically-minded society, only a maniac would behave in this way. The limitation of sympathy involved in the aristocratic ideal is its condemnation. Salvation is an aristocratic ideal, because it is individualistic. Another essay of salvation is that it believes from a what change, like the conversion of St Paul.

It may be said that a poet is an unimportant person, whose ideas are of no consequence. They have thought that misery and cruelty and degradation were due to tyrants or priests or capitalists or Germans, and that if these sources of evil were overthrown there would be a general change of heart and we should all live happy ever after.

The ultimate source of these hopes was the Christian doctrine of catastrophic conversion as the road to salvation. I do not wish to suggest that revolutions are never necessary, but I do wish to suggest graduating with suma cum laude personal acomplishment essay they are not short cuts to the millennium.

There is no short cut to the good life, whether individual or social.

What I Believe - PDF Free Download

To build up the good life, we must PDF up intelligence, self-control and sympathy. This is a quantitative believe, a matter of what improvement, of early russell, of educational experiment. Only impatience prompts the belief in the possibility of sudden improvement. The gradual improvement that is possible, and the methods by which it may be achieved, are a matter for future science. But something can be said essay.

I still hear the special pleading arguments which were outlined in this book used by people today even after they have been shot down in this book. We can just as easily say the universe has always existed or even more intelligently not make a statement on what we don't know beyond the best facts known. Oh, how I hate the argument that morality proves the existence of God and the other tired old tropes all of which are refuted in this book. There was one argument that I found silly. Russell criticizes Jesus cursing the fig tree. On this dot, tiny lumps of impure carbon and water, of complicated structure, with somewhat unusual physical and chemical properties, crawl about for a few years, until they are dissolved again into the elements of which they are compounded. They divide their time between labour designed to postpone the moment of dissolution for themselves and frantic struggles to hasten it for others of their kind. No man is liberated from fear who dare not see his place in the world as it is; no man can achieve the greatness of which he is capable until he has allowed himself to see his own littleness. Dreams and Facts Main article: The Problems of Philosophy Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it? Philosophy, if it cannot answer so many questions as we could wish, has at least the power of asking questions which increase the interest of the world, and show the strangeness and wonder lying just below the surface even in the commonest things of daily life. Philosophy is to be studied, not for the sake of any definite answers to its questions, since no definite answers can, as a rule, be known to be true, but rather for the sake of the questions themselves; because these questions enlarge our conception of what is possible, enrich our intellectual imagination and diminish the dogmatic assurance which closes the mind against speculation; but above all because, through the greatness of the universe which philosophy contemplates, the mind is also rendered great, and becomes capable of that union with the universe which constitutes its highest good. For example, a man who had seen a great many white swans might argue, by our principle, that on the data it was probable that all swans were white, and this might be a perfectly sound argument. The argument is not disproved by the fact that some swans are black, because a thing may very well happen in spite of the fact that some data render it improbable. In the case of the swans, a man might know that colour is a very variable characteristic in many species of animals, and that, therefore, an induction as to colour is peculiarly liable to error. But this knowledge would be a fresh datum, by no means proving that the probability relatively to our previous data had been wrongly estimated. The fact, therefore, that things often fail to fulfill our expectations is no evidence that our expectations will not probably be fulfilled in a given case or a given class of cases. Thus our inductive principle is at any rate not capable of being disproved by an appeal to experience. The inductive principle, however, is equally incapable of being proved by an appeal to experience. The conception of the necessary unit of all that is resolves itself into the poverty of the imagination, and a freer logic emancipates us from the straitwaistcoated benevolent institution which idealism palms off as the totality of being. Thus, while it liberates imagination as to what the world may be, it refuses to legislate as to what the world is. Instinct, intuition, or insight is what first leads to the beliefs which subsequent reason confirms or confutes; but the confirmation, where it is possible, consists, in the last analysis, of agreement with other beliefs no less instinctive. Reason is a harmonising, controlling force rather than a creative one. Even in the most purely logical realms, it is insight that first arrives at what is new. This distinction is a matter of degree, and must not be pressed; but if not taken too seriously it may help to make the situation clear. I mean by "hard" data those which resist the solvent influence of critical reflection, and by " soft " data those which, under the operation of this process, become to our minds more or less doubtful. They are love, the instinct of constructiveness, and the joy of life. All three are checked and enfeebled at present by the conditions under which men live—not only the less outwardly fortunate, but also the majority of the well-to-do. Our institutions rest upon injustice and authority: it is only by closing our hearts against sympathy and our minds against truth that we can endure the oppressions and unfairnesses by which we profit. The conventional conception of what constitutes success leads most men to live a life in which their most vital impulses are sacrificed, and the joy of life is lost in listless weariness. Our economic system compels almost all men to carry out the purposes of others rather than their own, making them feel impotent in action and only able to secure a certain modicum of passive pleasure. All these things destroy the vigor of the community, the expansive affections of individuals, and the power of viewing the world generously. All these things are unnecessary and can be ended by wisdom and courage. If they were ended, the impulsive life of men would become wholly different, and the human race might travel towards a new happiness and a new vigor. By oratory and the influence of the Press, public opinion is largely created by the State, and a tyrannous public opinion is as great an enemy to liberty as tyrannous laws. If the young man who will not fight finds that he is dismissed from his employment, insulted in the streets, cold-shouldered by his friends, and thrown over with scorn by any woman who may formerly have liked him, he will feel the penalty quite as hard to bear as a death sentence. A free community requires not only legal freedom, but a tolerant public opinion, an absence of that instinctive inquisition into our neighbors' affairs which, under the guise of upholding a high moral standard, enables good people to indulge unconsciously a disposition to cruelty and persecution. Thinking ill of others is not in itself a good reason for thinking well of ourselves. But so long as this is not recognized, and so long as the State can manufacture public opinion, except in the rare cases where it is revolutionary, public opinion must be reckoned as a definite part of the power of the State. Thought is subversive and revolutionary, destructive and terrible; thought is merciless to privilege, established institutions, and comfortable habits; thought is anarchic and lawless, indifferent to authority, careless of the well-tried wisdom of the ages. Thought looks into the pit of hell and is not afraid. It sees man, a feeble speck, surrounded by unfathomable depths of silence; yet it bears itself proudly, as unmoved as if it were lord of the universe. Thought is great and swift and free, the light of the world, and the chief glory of man. The aim of politics should be to make the lives of individuals as good as possible. The best life is the one in which the creative impulses play the largest part and the possessive impulses the smallest. Without effort and change , human life cannot remain good. It is not a finished Utopia that we ought to desire, but a world where imagination and hope are alive and active. The Philosophy of Logical Atomism [ edit ] An extra-terrestrial philosopher, who had watched a single youth up to the age of twenty-one and had never come across any other human being, might conclude that it is the nature of human beings to grow continually taller and wiser in an indefinite progress towards perfection; and this generalization would be just as well founded as the generalization which evolutionists base upon the previous history of this planet. The process of philosophizing, to my mind, consists mainly in passing from those obvious, vague, ambiguous things, that we feel quite sure of, to something precise, clear, definite, which by reflection and analysis we find is involved in the vague thing that we start from, and is, so to speak, the real truth of which that vague thing is a sort of shadow. I do not pretend to start with precise questions. I do not think you can start with anything precise. You have to achieve such precision as you can, as you go along. My desire and wish is that the things I start with should be so obvious that you wonder why I spend my time stating them. This is what I aim at because the point of philosophy is to start with something so simple as not to seem worth stating, and to end with something so paradoxical that no one will believe it. The reason that I call my doctrine logical atomism is because the atoms that I wish to arrive at as the sort of last residue in analysis are logical atoms and not physical atoms. Some of them will be what I call "particulars" — such things as little patches of color or sounds, momentary things — and some of them will be predicates or relations and so on. To understand a name you must be acquainted with the particular of which it is a name. In a logically perfect language, there will be one word and no more for every simple object, and everything that is not simple will be expressed by a combination of words, by a combination derived, of course, from the words for the simple things that enter in, one word for each simple component. Mysticism is, in essence, little more than a certain intensity and depth of feeling in regard to what is believed about the universe. Amid such a world, if anywhere, our ideals henceforward must find a home. Every great study is not only an end in itself, but also a means of creating and sustaining a lofty habit of mind. Ethics is in origin the art of recommending to others the sacrifices required for co-operation with oneself. Organic life, we are told, has developed gradually from the protozoon to the philosopher, and this development, we are assured, is indubitably an advance. Unfortunately it is the philosopher, not the protozoon, who gives us this assurance. They find themselves born into a certain place in society, and they accept what each day brings forth, without any effort of thought beyond what the immediate present requires. Almost as instinctively as the beasts of the field, they seek the satisfaction of the needs of the moment, without much forethought, and without considering that by sufficient effort the whole conditions of their lives could be changed. Introduction, p. On the other hand, both Marxian Socialism and Syndicalism, in spite of many drawbacks, seem to me calculated to give rise to a happier and better world than that in which we live. I do not, however, regard either of them as the best practicable system. Marxian Socialism, I fear, would give far too much power to the State, while Syndicalism, which aims at abolishing the State, would, I believe, find itself forced to reconstruct a central authority in order to put an end to the rivalries of different groups of producers. The best practicable system, to my mind, is that of Guild Socialism, which concedes what is valid both in the claims of the State Socialists and in the Syndicalist fear of the State, by adopting a system of federalism among trades for reasons similar to those which are recommending federalism among nations. It is difficult not to hate those who torture the objects of our love. Though difficult, it is not impossible; but it requires a breadth of outlook and a comprehensiveness of understanding which are not easy to preserve amid a desperate contest. If ultimate wisdom has not always been preserved by Socialists and Anarchists, they have not differed in this from their opponents; and in the source of their inspiration they have shown themselves superior to those who acquiesce ignorantly or supinely in the injustices and oppressions by which the existing system is preserved. I do not say freedom is the greatest of all goods: the best things come from within—they are such things as creative art, and love, and thought. But there is another method, more fundamental, and far more satisfactory when it succeeds. Two people between whom there is love succeed or fail together, but when two 18 moral rules people hate each other the success of either is the failure of the other. Moral codes have not always been faultless. But surely our modern codes of morals contain nothing analogous to these savage practices? Surely we only forbid things which are really harmful, or at any rate so abominable that no decent person could defend them? I am not so sure. Current morality is a curious blend of utilitarianism and superstition, but the superstitious part has the stronger hold, as is natural, since superstition is the origin of moral rules. Originally, certain acts were thought displeasing to the gods, and were forbidden by law because the divine wrath was apt to descend upon the community, not merely upon the guilty individuals. Hence arose the conception of sin, as that which is displeasing to God. But it was known by Revelation that this was the case. Sometimes the Divine commands have been curiously interpreted. For example, 19 moral rules we are told not to work on Saturdays, and Protestants take this to mean that we are not to play on Sundays. But the same sublime authority is attributed to the new prohibition as to the old. He will inquire whether it does any harm or whether, on the contrary, the belief that it is sinful does harm. But the defenders of traditional morality are seldom people with warm hearts, as may be seen from the love of militarism displayed by Church dignitaries. If the parents are not married, the child has a stigma, as clearly undeserved as anything could be. If either of the parents has venereal disease, the child is likely to inherit it. If they already have too many children for the family income, there will be poverty, underfeeding, overcrowding, very likely incest. Yet the great majority of moralists agree that the parents had better not know how to prevent this misery by 20 moral rules preventing conception. When well-to-do women have children, they have the best doctors, the best nurses, the best diet, the best rest and the best exercise. Working-class women do not enjoy these advantages, and frequently their children die for lack of them. A little is done by the public authorities in the way of care of mothers, but very grudgingly. They must know that in taking this decision they are condemning a certain number of 1 This is fortunately no longer true. The vast majority of Protestant and Jewish leaders do not now object to birth control. Yet the ruling party are supported by the immense majority of ministers of religion, who, with the Pope at their head, have pledged the vast forces of superstition throughout the world to the support of social injustice. A certain percentage of children have the habit of thinking; one of the aims of education is to cure them of this habit. Collective emotion is used to instil certain kinds of belief, more particularly nationalistic kinds. Capitalists, militarists, and ecclesiastics co-operate in education, because all depend for their power upon the prevalence of emotionalism and the rarity of critical judgement. With the aid of human nature, education succeeds in increasing and intensifying these propensities of the average man. For economic reasons, a woman teacher must not be married; for moral reasons, she must not have extra-marital sexual relations. And yet everybody who has taken the trouble to study morbid psychology knows that prolonged virginity is, as a rule, extraordinarily harmful to women, so harmful that, in a sane society, it would be severely discouraged in teachers. The restrictions imposed lead more and more to a refusal, on the part of energetic and enterprising women, to enter the teaching profession. At middle and upper class schools the matter is even worse. There are chapel services, and the care of morals is in the hands of clergymen. Clergymen, almost necessarily, fail in two ways as teachers of morals. They condemn acts which do 22 moral rules not harm and they condone acts which do great harm. They all condemn sexual relations between unmarried people who are fond of each other but not yet sure that they wish to live together all their lives. Most of them condemn birth control. None of them condemns the brutality of a husband who causes his wife to die of too frequent pregnancies. I knew a fashionable clergyman whose wife had nine children in nine years. The doctors told him that if she had another she would die. Next year she had another and died. So long as clergymen continue to condone cruelty and condemn innocent pleasure, they can only do harm as guardians of the morals of the young. The main physiological facts ought to be taught quite simply and naturally before puberty at a time when they are not exciting. At puberty, the elements of an unsuperstitious sexual morality ought to be taught. Boys and girls should be taught that nothing can justify sexual intercourse unless there is mutual inclination. They should be taught that to bring another human being into the world is a very serious matter, only to be undertaken when the child will have a reasonable prospect of health, good surroundings, and parental care. But they should also be taught methods of birth control, so as to insure that children 23 moral rules shall only come when they are wanted. Finally, they should be taught the dangers of venereal disease, and the methods of prevention and cure. The increase of human happiness to be expected from sex education on these lines is immeasurable. It should be recognised that, in the absence of children, sexual relations are a purely private matter, which does not concern either the State or the neighbours. The peculiar importance attached, at present, to adultery is quite irrational. Masculine insistence on a child a year, which is not conventionally misconduct or cruelty, is the most fatal of all. Moral rules ought not to be such as to make instinctive happiness impossible. Of course, under such circumstances, the moral rules are infringed. But when the rules are such that they can only be obeyed by greatly diminishing the happiness of the community, and when it is better they should be infringed than observed, surely it is time that the rules were changed. If this is not done, many people who are acting in a way not contrary to the public interest are faced with the undeserved alternative of hypocrisy or obloquy. It is also, of course, contrary to enlightened self-interest, since an exclusive nationalism does not pay even the victorious nations. Undoubtedly certain people do things which society wishes to prevent, and does right in preventing as far as possible. We may take murder as the plainest case. Obviously, if a community is to hold together and we are to enjoy its pleasures and advantages, we cannot allow people to kill each other whenever they feel an impulse to do so. We should ask simply: What is the best method of preventing murder? The harm to the murderer is wholly regrettable, like the pain of a surgical operation. It may be equally necessary, but it is not a subject for rejoicing. If prisons were so humanised that a prisoner got a good education for nothing, people might commit crimes in order to qualify for entrance. No doubt prison must be less pleasant than freedom; but the best way to secure this result is to make freedom more pleasant than it sometimes is at present. I do not wish, however, to embark upon the subject of Penal Reform. Each is a public danger, each must have his liberty curtailed until he has ceased to be a danger. This is quite irrational. Traditionally, the religious life was, as it were, a duologue between the soul and God. To obey the will of God was virtue; and this was possible for the individual quite regardless of the state of the community. This individualism of the separate soul had its value at certain stages of history, but in the modern world we need rather a social than an individual conception of welfare. In these circumstances, it was natural that they should adopt the belief that an individual may be perfect in an imperfect world, and that the good life has nothing to do with this world. He was accustomed to citizenship of a republic, and political responsibility was something which he took for granted. With the loss of Greek freedom comes the rise of Stoicism, which is like Christianity, and unlike Plato, in having an individualistic conception of the good life. But the more extreme Indian nationalists are not content with individual salvation: they want national salvation. In this they have taken on the outlook of the free democracies of the West. The good life, we said, is a life inspired by love and guided by knowledge. For example, the spread of cancer is alarming — what are we to do about it? At the moment, no one can answer the question for lack of knowledge; and the knowledge is not likely to emerge except through endowed research. Again, knowledge of science, history, literature and art ought to be attainable by all who desire it; this requires elaborate arrangements on the part of public authorities, and is not to be achieved by means of religious conversion. Then there is foreign trade, without which half the inhabitants of Great Britain would starve; and if we were starving very few of us would live the good life. It is needless to multiply examples. The idea of individual salvation, with which the early Christians consoled themselves for their political subjection, becomes impossible as soon as we escape from a very narrow conception of the good life. In the orthodox Christian conception, the good life is the virtuous life, and virtue consists in obedience to the will of God, and the will of God is revealed to each individual through the voice of conscience. This whole conception is that of men subject to an alien despotism. The good life involves much beside virtue — intelligence, for instance. All these things, in varying degrees, depend upon the community, and are helped or hindered by political events. The good life must be lived in a good society, and is not fully possible otherwise. This is the fundamental defect of the aristocratic ideal. They existed in Greece on a basis of slavery; they exist among ourselves on a basis of exploitation. But love, in the form of sympathy, or benevolence, cannot exist freely in an aristocratic society. Even if these gentlemen are welleducated, artistic, and admirable conversationalists, I cannot admit that they are living the good life. Human nature imposes some limitation of sympathy, but not such a degree as that. In a democratically-minded society, only a maniac would behave in this way. The limitation of sympathy involved in the aristocratic ideal is its condemnation. Salvation is an aristocratic ideal, because it is individualistic. Another characteristic of salvation is that it results from a catastrophic change, like the conversion of St Paul. It may be said that a poet is an unimportant person, whose ideas are of no consequence. They have thought that misery and cruelty and degradation were due to tyrants or priests or capitalists or Germans, and that if these sources of evil were overthrown there would be a general change of heart and we should all live happy ever after. The ultimate source of these hopes was the Christian doctrine of catastrophic conversion as the road to salvation. I do not wish to suggest that revolutions are never necessary, but I do wish to suggest that they are not short cuts to the millennium. There is no short cut to the good life, whether individual or social. To build up the good life, we must build up intelligence, self-control and sympathy. This is a quantitative matter, a matter of gradual improvement, of early training, of educational experiment. Only impatience prompts the belief in the possibility of sudden improvement. The gradual improvement that is possible, and the methods by which it may be achieved, are a matter for future science. Capitalists, militarists, and ecclesiastics co-operate in education, because all depend for their power upon the prevalence of emotionalism and the rarity of critical judgement. With the aid of human nature, education succeeds in increasing and intensifying these propensities of the average man. For economic reasons, a woman teacher must not be married; for moral reasons, she must not have extra-marital sexual relations. And yet everybody who has taken the trouble to study morbid psychology knows that prolonged virginity is, as a rule, extraordinarily harmful to women, so harmful that, in a sane society, it would be severely discouraged in teachers. The restrictions imposed lead more and more to a refusal, on the part of energetic and enterprising women, to enter the teaching profession. At middle and upper class schools the matter is even worse. There are chapel services, and the care of morals is in the hands of clergymen. Clergymen, almost necessarily, fail in two ways as teachers of morals. They condemn acts which do 22 moral rules not harm and they condone acts which do great harm. They all condemn sexual relations between unmarried people who are fond of each other but not yet sure that they wish to live together all their lives. Most of them condemn birth control. None of them condemns the brutality of a husband who causes his wife to die of too frequent pregnancies. I knew a fashionable clergyman whose wife had nine children in nine years. The doctors told him that if she had another she would die. Next year she had another and died. So long as clergymen continue to condone cruelty and condemn innocent pleasure, they can only do harm as guardians of the morals of the young. The main physiological facts ought to be taught quite simply and naturally before puberty at a time when they are not exciting. At puberty, the elements of an unsuperstitious sexual morality ought to be taught. Boys and girls should be taught that nothing can justify sexual intercourse unless there is mutual inclination. They should be taught that to bring another human being into the world is a very serious matter, only to be undertaken when the child will have a reasonable prospect of health, good surroundings, and parental care. But they should also be taught methods of birth control, so as to insure that children 23 moral rules shall only come when they are wanted. Finally, they should be taught the dangers of venereal disease, and the methods of prevention and cure. The increase of human happiness to be expected from sex education on these lines is immeasurable. It should be recognised that, in the absence of children, sexual relations are a purely private matter, which does not concern either the State or the neighbours. The peculiar importance attached, at present, to adultery is quite irrational. Masculine insistence on a child a year, which is not conventionally misconduct or cruelty, is the most fatal of all. Moral rules ought not to be such as to make instinctive happiness impossible. Of course, under such circumstances, the moral rules are infringed. But when the rules are such that they can only be obeyed by greatly diminishing the happiness of the community, and when it is better they should be infringed than observed, surely it is time that the rules were changed. If this is not done, many people who are acting in a way not contrary to the public interest are faced with the undeserved alternative of hypocrisy or obloquy. It is also, of course, contrary to enlightened self-interest, since an exclusive nationalism does not pay even the victorious nations. Undoubtedly certain people do things which society wishes to prevent, and does right in preventing as far as possible. We may take murder as the plainest case. Obviously, if a community is to hold together and we are to enjoy its pleasures and advantages, we cannot allow people to kill each other whenever they feel an impulse to do so. We should ask simply: What is the best method of preventing murder? The harm to the murderer is wholly regrettable, like the pain of a surgical operation. It may be equally necessary, but it is not a subject for rejoicing. If prisons were so humanised that a prisoner got a good education for nothing, people might commit crimes in order to qualify for entrance. No doubt prison must be less pleasant than freedom; but the best way to secure this result is to make freedom more pleasant than it sometimes is at present. I do not wish, however, to embark upon the subject of Penal Reform. Each is a public danger, each must have his liberty curtailed until he has ceased to be a danger. This is quite irrational. Traditionally, the religious life was, as it were, a duologue between the soul and God. To obey the will of God was virtue; and this was possible for the individual quite regardless of the state of the community. This individualism of the separate soul had its value at certain stages of history, but in the modern world we need rather a social than an individual conception of welfare. In these circumstances, it was natural that they should adopt the belief that an individual may be perfect in an imperfect world, and that the good life has nothing to do with this world. He was accustomed to citizenship of a republic, and political responsibility was something which he took for granted. With the loss of Greek freedom comes the rise of Stoicism, which is like Christianity, and unlike Plato, in having an individualistic conception of the good life. But the more extreme Indian nationalists are not content with individual salvation: they want national salvation. In this they have taken on the outlook of the free democracies of the West. The good life, we said, is a life inspired by love and guided by knowledge. For example, the spread of cancer is alarming — what are we to do about it? At the moment, no one can answer the question for lack of knowledge; and the knowledge is not likely to emerge except through endowed research. Again, knowledge of science, history, literature and art ought to be attainable by all who desire it; this requires elaborate arrangements on the part of public authorities, and is not to be achieved by means of religious conversion. Then there is foreign trade, without which half the inhabitants of Great Britain would starve; and if we were starving very few of us would live the good life. It is needless to multiply examples. The idea of individual salvation, with which the early Christians consoled themselves for their political subjection, becomes impossible as soon as we escape from a very narrow conception of the good life. In the orthodox Christian conception, the good life is the virtuous life, and virtue consists in obedience to the will of God, and the will of God is revealed to each individual through the voice of conscience. This whole conception is that of men subject to an alien despotism. The good life involves much beside virtue — intelligence, for instance. All these things, in varying degrees, depend upon the community, and are helped or hindered by political events. The good life must be lived in a good society, and is not fully possible otherwise. This is the fundamental defect of the aristocratic ideal. They existed in Greece on a basis of slavery; they exist among ourselves on a basis of exploitation. But love, in the form of sympathy, or benevolence, cannot exist freely in an aristocratic society. Even if these gentlemen are welleducated, artistic, and admirable conversationalists, I cannot admit that they are living the good life. Human nature imposes some limitation of sympathy, but not such a degree as that. In a democratically-minded society, only a maniac would behave in this way. The limitation of sympathy involved in the aristocratic ideal is its condemnation. Salvation is an aristocratic ideal, because it is individualistic. Another characteristic of salvation is that it results from a catastrophic change, like the conversion of St Paul. It may be said that a poet is an unimportant person, whose ideas are of no consequence. They have thought that misery and cruelty and degradation were due to tyrants or priests or capitalists or Germans, and that if these sources of evil were overthrown there would be a general change of heart and we should all live happy ever after. The ultimate source of these hopes was the Christian doctrine of catastrophic conversion as the road to salvation. I do not wish to suggest that revolutions are never necessary, but I do wish to suggest that they are not short cuts to the millennium. There is no short cut to the good life, whether individual or social. To build up the good life, we must build up intelligence, self-control and sympathy. This is a quantitative matter, a matter of gradual improvement, of early training, of educational experiment. Only impatience prompts the belief in the possibility of sudden improvement. The gradual improvement that is possible, and the methods by which it may be achieved, are a matter for future science. But something can be said now. This is a laudable ambition, since their behaviour is for the most part deplorable. But I cannot praise the moralist either for the particular improvements he desires or for the methods he adopts for achieving them. His ostensible method is moral exhortation; his real method if he is orthodox is a system of economic rewards and punishments. They cause a man, for example, to prefer casual prostitutes to a quasi-permanent mistress, because it is necessary to adopt the method which is most easily concealed. They thus keep up the numbers of a very dangerous profession, and secure the prevalence of venereal disease. I think there is. It is not necessary to dwell upon the harmfulness that springs from ignorance; here, more knowledge is all that is wanted, so that the road to improvement lies in more research and more education. In the ordinary man and woman there is a certain amount of active malevolence, both special ill-will directed to particular enemies and general impersonal pleasure in the misfortunes of others. This active malevolence is the worst feature of human nature and the one which it is most necessary to change if the world is to grow happier. Probably this 33 science and happiness one cause has more to do with war than all the economic and political causes put together. Given this problem of preventing malevolence, how shall we deal with it? First let us try to understand its causes. These are, I think, partly social, partly physiological. The world, now as much as at any former time, is based upon life-and-death competition; the question at issue in the War was whether German or Allied children should die of want and starvation. Apart from malevolence on both sides there was not the slightest reason why both should not survive. Most people have in the background of their minds a haunting fear of ruin; this is especially true of people who have children. It is in moments of panic that cruelty becomes most widespread and most atrocious. Reactionaries everywhere appeal to fear: in England, to fear of Bolshevism; in France, to fear of Germany; in Germany, to fear of France. This can be done in two ways: by increasing security, and by cultivating courage. I am speaking of fear as an irrational passion, not of the rational prevision of possible misfortune. The Victorian Age, for all its humbug, was a period of rapid progress, because men were dominated by hope rather than fear. If we are again to have progress, we must again be dominated by hope. Everything that increases the general security is likely to diminish cruelty. But nothing is accomplished by an attempt to make a portion of mankind secure at the expense of another portion — Frenchmen at the expense of Germans, capitalists at the expense of wage-earners, white men at the expense of yellow men, and so on. Such methods only increase terror in the dominant group, lest just resentment should lead the oppressed to rebel. In addition to social changes designed to bring security there is, however, another and more direct means of diminishing fear, namely by a regimen designed to increase courage.

This is a laudable ambition, since their behaviour is for the most part deplorable. But I cannot praise the moralist either for the particular improvements he desires or for the methods he adopts for achieving them.

His what method is moral exhortation; his real method if he is orthodox is a system of economic believes and punishments. They cause a man, for example, to how to talk abot the chacters in a essay casual prostitutes to a quasi-permanent mistress, because it is necessary to adopt the essay which is most easily concealed.

They thus keep up the how long should a narrative essay introduction be of a very dangerous bertrand, and secure the prevalence of venereal disease. I think there is. It is not necessary to dwell upon the harmfulness that springs from ignorance; here, more knowledge is all that is wanted, so that the road to improvement lies in more research and more education.

In the ordinary man and woman there is a certain amount of active malevolence, both special ill-will directed to particular enemies and general impersonal pleasure in the misfortunes of others. This active malevolence is the worst feature of human nature and the one which it is most necessary to change if the world is to grow happier.

Probably this 33 science and happiness one cause has more to do with PDF than all the economic and political causes put together. Given this problem of preventing malevolence, how shall we deal with it. First let us try to understand its causes. These are, I think, partly social, partly physiological. The russell, now as much as at any former time, is based upon life-and-death competition; the question at issue in the War was whether German or Allied children should die of want and starvation.

Apart from malevolence on both sides there was not the slightest reason why both should not survive.

Most people have in the background of their minds a haunting fear of ruin; this is especially true of people who have children. It is in russells of panic that cruelty becomes most widespread and most atrocious. Reactionaries what appeal to fear: in England, to fear of Bolshevism; in France, to fear of Germany; in Germany, to fear of France.

This can be done in two ways: by increasing security, and by cultivating courage. Good introduction for essay am speaking of fear as an irrational passion, not of the rational prevision of possible misfortune. The Victorian Age, for all its bertrand, was a period of rapid progress, because men were dominated by hope rather than fear.

If we are again to have progress, we must again be dominated by hope. Everything that increases the general security is likely to diminish cruelty. But nothing is accomplished by an attempt to make a portion of mankind secure at the expense of another portion — Frenchmen at the expense of Germans, capitalists at the expense of wage-earners, essay men at the expense of believe PDF, and so on.